The 35-year-old, who made his debut for the Rotterdam club as a 17-year-old, scored 50 goals in 102 appearances for the Netherlands.
In England, van Persie won an FA Cup with Arsenal and a Premier League title at Manchester United.
His 144 Premier League goals make him the highest-scoring Dutchman in the competition.
Erik Falkenburg put Den Haag ahead at the De Kuip stadium on Sunday, before Sheraldo Becker doubled the visitors’ lead 13 minutes into the second half.
Van Persie was given a guard of honour by both sets of players as he was substituted in second-half stoppage time.
The forward will not feature against Fortuna Sittard in Feyenoord’s final game of the season on Wednesday – a match which was originally due to be played on 28 April.
However, the Dutch FA decided to cancel a full round of fixtures prior to Ajax’s Champions League semi-final clash against Tottenham to give Erik ten Hag’s team “at least two full days of rest between games”.
Feyenoord manager Giovanni van Bronckhorst, whose side are guaranteed to finish third in the Eredivisie, confirmed last week that van Persie’s last match would be against Den Haag.
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