Kane opened the scoring in the 19th minute of the World Cup qualifier at Wembley.
Poland equalized in the 58th minute through Jakub Moder after John Stones’ blander.
But England would prevail 2-1 after Harry Maguire’s late winner.
The win made it to three wins from three for the Three Liones to begin qualification for Qatar 2022.
Harry Kane breaks record
With his 10th career international goal from the spot, Kane broke the Three Lions record that was previously held by Frank Lampard.
Harry Kane has now scored on all seven days of the week for England.
He is only the third player to do so for the Three Lions, after Wayne Rooney and Lampard.
Kane has been in prolific form for England in recent years.
He has now been involved in 30 goals in 21 European Championship/World Cup qualifying matches (22 goals, 8 assists).
Harry Kane has scored at least once in each of his last 12 such appearances, stretching back to October 2017.
With 34 international goals, Kane continues to chase down Wayne Rooney’s all-time England record of 53.
Kane is already sixth on England’s all-time scoring chart.
Rooney, Bobby Charlton, Gary Lineker, Jimmy Greaves and Michael Owen are ahead of him.